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What is a Flexible PCB: Material,Design,Types and Functions

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flexible circuit pcb

Flexible printed circuit boards (PCBs), also known as flex circuits, provide unique capabilities beyond conventional rigid PCB technologies. The flexible construction allows them to bend, fold, and flex dynamically in use. With increasing miniaturization and innovation in electronics, flex PCBs have become ubiquitous in modern devices and products.

This article will provide a comprehensive overview of flexible PCB technology covering:

  • Flexible PCB materials and construction
  • Key properties and characteristics
  • Typical flex PCB design considerations
  • Common flex circuit types and applications
  • Advantages and limitations
  • Flex vs rigid PCBs comparison
  • Future trends

Learning the fundamentals of flexible PCB technology will allow you to determine where and how to effectively utilize flex circuits in your electronic products and designs.

What is a Flex PCB?

A flexible PCB uses a dielectric base layer made of a flexible polymer material such as polyimide or polyester. The conductive copper traces are laminated onto the flexible base layer to create a thin, bendable circuit board. The lack of rigid fiberglass reinforcement allows the flex PCB to be dynamically flexed and contorted during use.

Common names used to refer to flexible PCBs:

  • Flex circuits
  • Flexible circuits
  • Flexible printed circuits
  • Flex prints

Some key properties that differentiate flex PCBs include:

  • Flexible – Can bend, twist, fold to conform around structures
  • Lightweight – Extremely thin flexible material
  • Dynamic – Repeatedly flexing, rolling, folding in use
  • Durable – Withstands millions of flex cycles
  • Integrated – Interconnects can be components themselves
  • Space saving – Tightly integrates with products
  • Customizable – Can be fabricated in any 2D shape

These capabilities allow flexible circuits to meet the complex physical and electrical demands in compact, portable electronic devices that rigid boards cannot satisfy.

Flexible PCB Materials and Construction

The unique materials and construction of flexible PCBs enable their distinct capabilities. The key components of a flex circuit’s build are:

Dielectric Flexible Substrate

The base dielectric layer provides the foundation upon which the conductive traces are fabricated. Choosing the right flexible substrate material is critical. Common options include:

  • Polyimide (Kapton) – Most popular, high temp rating, excellent chemical resistance
  • Polyester (PET) – Lower cost, moderately high temp rating
  • Polyamide – Flexible even at low temps
  • Fluoropolymers (PTFE) – Superior chemical resistance, relatively expensive
  • Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) – High frequency, low signal loss

Polyimide is the most widely used flex substrate material given its high durability, thermal properties and cost-benefit ratio.

Copper Foil

An ultrathin rolled annealed copper foil is laminated onto the base substrate. Typical foil thickness in flex PCBs range from 12μm to 35μm (0.5 oz to 1 oz). The thinnest option is chosen based on current carrying needs to maximize flexibility.


The copper foil is patterned using lithographic processes to produce the required conductive paths or traces. A subtractive process is typically used for flex PCB conductor fabrication.


A thin flexible dielectric coverlay can be laminated over the conductor layer for insulation and protection. Coverlay thickness is usually 25 to 50μm. Kapton or polyester films are commonly used.

Bonding Adhesive

Acrylic or epoxy based adhesive films are used to bond the base substrate with copper foil and coverlay with conductors. These adhesives provide effective adhesion while maintaining flexibility.


Additional dielectric stiffening layers may be added in multilayer constructions. This helps minimize flex PCB wrinkling or buckling due to thermal stresses.

Finish and Coatings

A solder mask coats the conductor pattern for insulation and anti-oxidation. Hot air solder leveling (HASL) or other surface finishes can be applied to exposed pads.

flex circuit

Key Properties of Flexible PCBs

The materials and construction methods impart the following characteristic properties to flex circuits:

Thickness – Flex PCB overall thickness typically ranges from 12 μm for simple single layer constructions to around 180μm for complex multilayer boards. This allows extremely thin, lightweight circuits.

Bend radius – Flex PCBs can be bent to tight radii down to 3X the thickness. Dynamic flexing down to 10X thickness is possible for some constructions.

Heat Resistance – Polyimide base provides heat resistance up to 400°C, allowing flex PCBs to withstand reflow soldering temperatures. Other materials offer lower maximum temperatures.

Chemical Resistance – The substrates provide good chemical resistance for most common fluxes and solvents used during assembly and soldering.

Weight – The lightweight polyimide or polyester substrate makes flex PCBs weigh 80-90% less than equivalent rigid laminates.

High Frequency – Short signal paths and thin dielectric provide good high frequency performance. Certain substrates like LCP offer superior RF properties.

Current Ratings – Copper thickness limits current carrying capacity. Typical continuous current ratings range from around 0.5A to 5A for common flex circuit constructions.

By selecting suitable materials and design rules, flexible PCB properties can be tuned to meet application requirements.

Flexible PCB Design Considerations

Designing a reliable flex PCB requires special considerations for the dynamic bending aspects. Here are some of the key guidelines.

Trace Width and Spacing

Narrower traces require increased flex spacing to avoid cracks. A 2:1 ratio of spacing to trace width is recommended for dynamic regions.

Bend Radius

Traces should be routed perpendicular to bend axes. Maintain at least 3X base thickness for static and 10X for dynamic bend radius.

Coverlay Voids

Minimize coverlay voids where traces are exposed to prevent wear. Strategically place voids considering dynamic bend zones.


Added stiffeners may be needed in multilayer regions to prevent buckling and wrinkling due to bending.


Use high performance flexible adhesives designed for dynamic flex applications. Acrylic adhesives provide good durability.


Use tear-drop shaped vias with adequate annular rings to avoid crack propagation from the drill hole edges.


Rounding sharp trace corners with higher radii reduces stress concentrations. Avoid angled traces at corners.


Use rounded rectangle shaped pads or circles. Thermally relieve pads at flexing areas with neckdowns.


Flexible shielding films or conductive layers help protect against EMI/ESD. Dedicated shielding traces can also be incorporated.

By adopting and evolving such specialized guidelines, flex PCBs can be designed to survive millions of flexing cycles with long product lifetimes.

Common Flex PCB Types and Applications

Flexible circuits can be implemented in several configurations for interconnect and packaging applications:

Flexible Interconnects

Interconnects use simple conductor traces or wire patterns over the flexible substrate to connect PCBs, displays and other modules over hinges, slides or other dynamic movements.

Flexible Cables

Flex cables utilize parallel conductor traces over the rolled flex substrate to create a ribbon cable capable of high density interconnections for signals, data and power.

Membrane Switches

Membrane circuits integrates conductor traces, spacers and flexible overlays to create ultra-thin touch sensitive controls switches.

Flex Rigid Boards

Rigid boards are integrated with flexible sections in between to create a hybrid PCB that can be folded compactly while retaining complex rigid portions.

Flexible Heaters

Resistive heating elements like nickel-chromium alloy traces are patterned on flex substrates to create thin heating pads and blankets that can conform to surfaces.

Some common flex PCB applications are:

The compact, lightweight and dynamic characteristics of flex circuits open up innovative design possibilities.

Benefits and Advantages of Flex PCBs

Here are some of the key benefits provided by flexible PCB technology:

Dynamic Flexing – Withstand millions of movement cycles enabling rolling, twisting, folding which is impossible with rigid PCBs.

Conforms to Shape – Can tightly integrate with product contours and housings unlike rigid boards.

Lightweight – Extremely low mass compared to rigid laminates allows portable, wearable devices.

Thin Form Factor – Compact, low-profile circuits to fit small spaces and enable thinner products.

Durable – Flexible construction is resistant to vibrations and mechanical shocks.

High Density – Integrates interconnects avoiding external cables and connectors.

Custom Shapes – Can be produced in unlimited 2D shapes and outlines.

Soft and pliable – Allows integration of complete electronic systems into fabrics.

Reliability – Offers consistent performance over flex life with proper design.

Cost Savings – Removes connectors, simplifies assembly and lowers total product cost.

Limitations and Challenges

While offering many advantages, flexible PCB technology also poses the following limitations:

Limited layers and density – Typical 1-6 layers allows only simpler circuits. High density multilayer flex is still developing.

Lower current ratings – Copper thickness limits current carrying capacity typically under 5A.

Challenging assembly – Requires specialized SMT processes suitable for flexible substrates.

Prone to wear – Improper dynamic flex spacing causes cracks and conductor failures.

** Requires backing structure** – Flex circuits need assembly onto rigid frames or enclosures for full system integration.

Thermal management concerns – The insulating polymer substrate hinders heat dissipation.

Susceptible to environmental damage – Hence additional protective encapsulation is necessary.

With sound design practices and progress in materials, these limitations are constantly being addressed to expand flex PCB capabilities.

Flexible vs Rigid PCBs Comparison

While rigid PCB technology is suitable for many applications, in certain cases transitioning to flexible PCB implementation is better. Here is a comparison between flex PCBs versus rigid PCBs:

ParameterFlexible PCBRigid PCB
CompositionPolymer dielectric (PI, PET)Rigid laminate (FR4)
LayersTypically 1-6 layersUp to 30+ layers
FeaturesFine line traces, small viasAllows ultra-fine features (<3 mil)
DensityMedium densityVery high density possible
Thermal conductivityPoor conduction through polymerGood thermal conduction
Current capacityTypically < 5AHigh currents possible
AssemblyRequires specialized SMT processStandard SMT assembly
ShapeCan produce any 2D contourLimited to rectangular boards
Bend radiusCan flex dynamicallyAlmost no bend radius

While rigid PCBs serve most high complexity, density, and power applications, flex PCBs provide the mechanical flexibility needed in space restricted mobile designs. The optimal solution is often integrating both on a rigid-flex PCB to leverage the best of both technologies.

Future Trends in Flexible PCBs

Here are some key trends shaping the continued evolution of flexible PCB technology:

Thinner Constructions – Reducing flexible layer thicknesses down to 1 mil to improve bendability.

Smaller Features – Narrower trace widths and spacing down to 2 mils to increase integration.

Improved Materials – New substrates like LCP for better electrical and high frequency performance.

Fine Pitch Components – Enabling direct surface mount of ultra-fine pitch ICs on flex PCBs.

High Density Flex – Development of flexible multilayer boards up to 12 conductive layers.

Embedding Passives – Incorporating thin embedded resistors and capacitors within the flexible layers.

Stretchable Circuits – Adopting novel materials to allow flexible PCBs to stretch and deform.

Additive Processing – Transitioning from subtractive etching to additive fabrication using printing or plating processes.

3D Structured Flex Circuits – Techniques to fabricate out-of-plane flex circuit structures.

As material science and manufacturing processes mature, flex PCB technology will open doors to more innovative electronics designs not feasible before.

Flexible PCBs - FAQs

Q: What are the most common applications of flexible PCBs?

Some of the most popular applications are in consumer electronics, wearable devices, medical equipment, robotics, industrial machines, automotive electronics and aerospace avionics.

Q: What are the main materials used as the flexible dielectric substrate?

Polyimide is the most common flexible dielectric material used in flex PCBs, followed by other polymers like polyester (PET), polyamide, and polyurethane. At the high-end, liquid crystal polymer (LCP) is also used.

Q: What are some key advantages of flex PCBs over rigid PCBs?

Flex PCBs provide dynamic flexibility to bend and fold, lightweight and thin construction, ability to take custom 2D shapes, improved ruggedness against vibrations, simplified assemblies eliminating connectors, and potential longer-term cost savings.

Q: What are some of the design challenges with flexible PCBs?

Careful design considerations are needed for aspects like trace spacing, bend radius, adhesives, vias, tear propagation and shielding to ensure reliability over millions of flexing cycles. The circuits also require proper structural backing support.

Q: How many bend cycles can a properly designed flex PCB survive?

It’s common for robust flex PCB implementations to exceed 25,000 – 100,000 dynamic bend cycles for consumer grade applications. In industrial and military systems, millions of flex cycles are achieved over product lifetimes.

Conclusion and Summary

Key takeaways:

  • Flex PCB technology enables flexible, lightweight and dynamic circuits through specialized materials and construction.
  • Polyimide is the most popular flexible dielectric substrate paired with ultrathin copper foils.
  • Flexible PCB properties support tight bend radii down to 3-10X the total thickness.
  • Careful design considerations are critical for dynamic flex performance and reliability.
  • Flex circuits are widely used for compact and portable electronics designs requiring flexibility.
  • Flex PCBs provide unique advantages but have limitations in layers, density and power handling.
  • The technology continues to evolve with thinner, higher density and more capable implementations.

With their distinct capabilities and advantages, flexible PCBs will continue growing as an interconnection method supporting electronics miniaturization across industries.

Top 20 Flex PCB Manufacturers

1. RayMing Technology

flexible printed circuit

Founded in 2008 and headquartered in Suzhou, China, RayMing has established itself as a world leader in flexible PCB manufacturing.


  • 12+ flex circuit production lines
  • Volume capacity of over 500,000 sqm per month
  • Line width/space: 2 mil (0.05mm)
  • Laser microvias down to 0.15mm diameter
  • Stacked microvias, blind and buried vias
  • Flex-rigid-flex integration
  • Flip chip assemblies and wafer level processing

RayMing provides comprehensive flexible PCB solutions from rapid prototyping to mass production of single, double, and multilayer flex circuits along with flex-rigid integration. They offer specialized expertise in manufacturing ultra-thin, high density interconnect flex circuits for advanced electronics.

2. Flexium Interconnect

Flexium is among the top flexible PCB manufacturers based in Taiwan with annual revenues exceeding $1 billion. They operate an extensive global footprint with plants in Taiwan and China.


  • Line width/space: 2 mil (0.05mm)
  • Laser vias down to 0.15mm
  • Staggered microvias
  • Stacked vias, blind/buried vias
  • Thin flexible multilayers
  • Flex-on-flex buildup layers
  • Ultra-fine pitch assemblies

Flexium produces over 1 million sqm of flex PCBs monthly. They focus on high complexity FPCs for dynamic flexing applications in consumer tech, telecom, automotive, and medical sectors.

3. Fujikura

Fujikura is a Japanese manufacturer specialized in flexible PCBs for nearly 50 years with revenues exceeding $1.3 billion. They possess extensive R&D and manufacturing scale with plants in Japan, China, Indonesia, Vietnam, and India.


  • Line width/space: 2 mil (0.05mm)
  • Blind vias and microvias
  • 30+ flex layers capability
  • Flex-on-flex buildup
  • Ultra-thin polyimide films
  • Mass lamination expertise
  • Roll-to-roll production

Fujikura leverages its PET and polyimide technology leadership into advanced flex circuit fabrication. Main applications include consumer electronics, automotive electronics, telecommunications infrastructure, and medical equipment.

4. Career Technologies

Career Technologies is a major flexible PCB producer headquartered in Taiwan with annual revenues of approximately $0.8 billion. They operate several China plants supporting global customers.


  • Line width/space: 2 mil (0.05mm)
  • Laser microvias down to 0.15mm
  • Copper filled microvias
  • Flex-rigid integration
  • Flex multilayering and stacking
  • Flip chip assemblies

Career Technologies specializes in high-mix, quick-turn flex board fabrication ideal for prototyping needs. They also manufacture a range of rigid-flex PCBs.

5. Flex (Flextronics)

Flex is an Electronic Manufacturing Services (EMS) provider that offers dedicated flexible PCB fabrication through two business units – Multek and MCMS. They have a global manufacturing footprint with plants in the Americas, Europe, and Asia.


  • Line width/space: 1 mil (0.025mm)
  • Laser microvias down to 0.1mm
  • Flex multilayering
  • Rigid-flex integration
  • HDI flex circuits
  • Roll-to-roll production

Flex’s flex PCB expertise stems from the acquisitions of Multek and MCMS, earlier industry pioneers in flex manufacturing. Key end markets include consumer electronics, telecom infrastructure, automotive, medical, aerospace, and industrial.

6. Nippon Mektron

Nippon Mektron is a Japanese flex PCB manufacturer with dual headquarters in Japan and Taiwan. They have revenues exceeding $2.5 billion through several advanced flex production facilities globally.


  • Line width/space: 2 mil (0.05mm)
  • Laser microvias down to 0.1mm
  • Flex-rigid-flex
  • Multilayer flex and rigid-flex
  • Mass lamination and roll-to-roll
  • Ultra-thin flex circuits

Nippon Mektron supplies flex PCBs for notebook and smartphone OEMs. Other applications include printers, cameras, audio equipment, and automotive electronics.

7. TTM Technologies

TTM Technologies is among the top 5 largest PCB manufacturers worldwide with over $2 billion in annual revenues. They operate dedicated flexible PCB manufacturing lines.


  • Line width/space: 2 mil (0.05mm)
  • Laser microvias down to 0.15mm
  • Flex-rigid integration
  • Multilayer flex circuits
  • Flex assemblies with 01005 components

In addition to conventional flex PCBs, TTM offers radio frequency (RF) flexible circuits made using polyimide materials. Key end markets include aerospace, defense, medical, and industrial equipment.

8. Zhen Ding Tech

Zhen Ding Tech is a leading flexible circuit and substrate manufacturer based in Taiwan with revenues exceeding $2 billion. They operate extensive flex PCB production lines across China and Taiwan.


  • Line width/space: 1 mil (0.025mm)
  • Laser microvias down to 0.1mm
  • Flex multilayers and stiffeners
  • Flexible substrates
  • Flip chip interconnect
  • Rigid-flex PCBs

ZD Tech produces billions of flex PCBs annually supporting smartwatch, notebook, smartphone, and advanced chip packaging customers.

Rigid PCB VS Flex PCB

9. Sumitomo Denko Printed Circuits

Sumitomo Denko Printed Circuits is a flex PCB manufacturer subsidiary of Japanese industrial giant Sumitomo Group. They have production sites in Japan, Vietnam, and China.


  • Line width/space: 2 mil (0.05mm)
  • Laser microvias down to 0.1mm diameter
  • Multilayer flexible circuits
  • Ultra-thin polyimide circuits
  • Flex-to-rigid integration

Sumitomo Denko focuses on high-density interconnection flex PCBs involving fine lines, microvias, and thin dielectric materials. Main end market segments include consumer electronics, communications, and automotive.

10. Interflex

Interflex is a flexible circuit manufacturer headquartered in the USA with a global footprint and over 700 employees. They offer quick-turn prototyping through volume production.


  • Line width/space: 2 mil (0.05mm)
  • Microvias down to 0.15mm diameter
  • Multilayer flex buildup
  • Flex-rigid integration
  • Roll-to-roll processing

Interflex produces flex circuits for medical, military, aerospace, industrial, and instrumentation customers where reliability is critical.

11. Compass Technology Company

Compass Technology, founded in 1991, develops and manufactures a variety of flexible PCBs from their plants in China and Vietnam.


  • Line width/space: 2 mil (0.05mm)
  • Laser microvias down to 0.1mm
  • Flex multilayering
  • Rigid-flex PCBs
  • Flex assemblies with 01005 components

Compass specializes in high complexity rigid-flex PCBs. They focus primarily on consumer electronics and communications sectors.

12. Dongguan Somacis Flexible Circuit Tech

Somacis is a China based flex PCB manufacturer serving OEMs in the printer, camera module, industrial equipment, and medical device segments.


  • Line width/space: 3 mil (0.075mm)
  • Microvias down to 0.15mm diameter
  • Multilayer flex circuits
  • Rigid-flex PCBs
  • Roll-to-roll processing

Somacis provides cost-effective, high-mix flex PCB production coupled with responsive customer service.

13. Flexium Interconnect

Headquartered in India, Flexium Interconnect is focused on the domestic flex PCB market with additional export reach. They have clients in defense, aerospace, telecom, medical, industrial, and test & measurement sectors.


  • Line width/space: 2 mil (0.05mm)
  • Microvias down to 0.15mm
  • Flex-rigid integration
  • Multilayer flex circuits

Flexium Interconnect provides optimized solutions from design to manufacturing of rigid-flex PCBs involving high layer counts and fine geometries.

14. AllFlex

AllFlex is aflexible circuit manufacturer with facilities in the USA and China. They offer specialized expertise in manufacturing ultra-thin flex circuits.


  • Line width/space: 2 mil (0.05mm)
  • Microvias down to 0.15mm
  • Build-up flex layers
  • Thin film circuits down to 0.5 mil
  • Flex-rigid-flex PCBs

AllFlex produces custom flex circuits involving tight tolerances, fine features, and challenging materials for aerospace, defense, and industrial customers.

fpc pcb

15. MFS Technology

MFS Technology, founded in 1982, provides fabrication and assembly of flexible PCBs from their plant in Singapore.


  • Line width/space: 2 mil (0.05mm)
  • Laser microvias down to 0.1mm
  • Multilayer flex buildup
  • Rigid-flex PCBs
  • 0201 component assembly

MFS Technology specializes in high-mix, quick-turn prototypes and low-to-mid volume production runs suited for R&D.

16. Flexible Circuit Technologies

Flexible Circuit Technologies is a specialized manufacturer of flex PCBs for medical, military, aerospace, and industrial applications. They are headquartered in the USA.


  • Line width/space: 2 mil (0.05mm)
  • Laser microvias down to 0.2mm diameter
  • Multilayer flex circuits
  • Ultra-thin polyimide materials

They provide optimized solutions tailored for mission-critical flex PCB applications requiring high quality and reliability.

17. Advanced Circuits

Based in the USA, Advanced Circuits is an quick-turn PCB fabricator that offers prototype and small-run production of rigid and flex PCBs.


  • Line width/space: 3 mil (0.075mm)
  • Microvias down to 0.2mm
  • Single and double layer flex PCBs
  • Rigid-flex integration

Advanced Circuits can produce custom rigid and flex PCBs within 24 hours, enabling accelerated prototyping.

flexible pcb define

18. Mini-Circuits

Mini-Circuits, headquartered in the USA, manufactures RF and microwave components as well as flexible PCBs used in defense and commercial high frequency systems.


  • Line width/space: 2 mil (0.05mm)
  • Laser microvias
  • Multilayer flex circuits
  • High frequency/low loss materials

Mini-Circuits provides specialized expertise and quality processes for developing RF flex PCBs to match impedance requirements.

Flexible PCB stiffener

19. Avary Holding (Suzhou)

Avary provides flexible PCB fabrication and assembly services from their plants in China. They offer cost-effective solutions for high-mix, low-to-mid volume production.


  • Line width/space: 3 mil (0.075mm)
  • Mechanical microvias
  • Single layer, double layer, and multilayer flex
  • Flex-rigid integration

Avary caters primarily to consumer electronics, industrial equipment, and networking customers.


Contributors Electronics is a Chicago based manufacturer of rigid and flexible PCB prototypes in low volumes.


  • Line width/space: 3 mil (0.075mm)
  • Microvias down to 0.2mm
  • Single and double layer flex circuits
  • Quick-turn prototypes

Contributors provides fast fabrication of custom rigid and flex PCB samples within 3 days in the USA.

Flexible PCB Prototype

Evaluating Flexible PCB Manufacturers

Here are key criteria to consider when selecting a flex PCB partner:

Technical Capabilities

  • Line width/space – 1 mil to 2 mil capability preferred
  • Microvias – 0.1mm to 0.15mm diameter range
  • Layer count – Need for multilayer flex?
  • Materials – Polyimide, LCP, PEN support desired?
  • Stacking options – Build-up layers, blind vias, stacked vias
  • Testing – Do they have test coverage you need?

Quality and Certifications

  • Quality system – ISO 9001, IPC QML, etc.
  • Cleanrooms – Class 100K or 10K?
  • Acceptance testing – IPC 6013?
  • Reliability testing – Flex cycles, dynamic bend, etc.
  • Compliance – ITAR, ISO 13485, AS9100, etc.
flex circuit design

Production Volumes

  • Prototyping – Low volume capabilities?
  • Production – Capacity for volumes needed?
  • Experience – Years manufacturing flex PCBs?


  • Budgetary quote – How do process costs compare?
  • NRE charges – One-time engineering fees?
  • Expedite fees – For faster delivery?
  • Lower cost regions – Manufacturing sites match?

Customer Support

  • Design support – DFM analysis, reviews?
  • Response time – Quoting and inquiries turnaround time?
  • Communication – English proficiency, transparency?
  • Continuous improvement – 8D reporting, customer surveys, etc.?


flexible pcb manufacturing flow chart

Flexible PCBs enable lighter, thinner, and more reliable electronic circuit assemblies through the use of bendable materials that can withstand vibration, shock, and repeated flexing. Partnering with a capable flex PCB manufacturer geared to handle the complexity, quality requirements, and volumes of your particular product is key to realizing maximum benefits. This article provided an overview of the top flexible PCB manufacturers across the globe along with a framework for evaluating technical capabilities, quality, volumes, costs, certifications, and customer support. Taking the time to thoroughly assess potential manufacturers increases the probability of selecting the ideal long-term flex PCB partner for your needs.

flexible printed circuit


What are the main benefits of using flexible PCBs versus rigid PCBs?

Flexible PCBs provide benefits like improved reliability in dynamic environments, ability to conform to enclosures, elimination of wiring harnesses, weight reduction, three-dimensional circuitry, and enhanced high frequency performance.

What are the typical volume applications for flexible PCBs?

Flexible PCBs are ideal for applications ranging from low to medium volumes up to a few hundred thousand units per year such as wearables, medical devices, robotics, and consumer electronics.

What are the limitations of flexible PCB technology?

Limitations include lower wiring densities versus rigid PCBs, higher costs for multilayer flex, more complex assembly, constraint on component sizes and lead forms, and challenges dissipating heat in high power circuits.

How should I engage with potential flex PCB manufacturers during evaluation?

Reach out with all your design files, requirements checklist, and volumes to solicit technical feedback, DFM analysis, and budgetary quotes. Review quality certifications and customer testimonials. Discuss prototyping support.

What testing considerations are important for reliable flexible PCBs?

Key tests to validate flexible circuits include flex cycle endurance, dynamic bend tests, torsion and twist, adhesive bond strengths, flammability rating, solder joint integrity, electrical continuity during/after flexing, and environmental stress tests.